Chartering Terms N - Z:
NAABSA - Not Always Afloat But Safe Aground - Provision in a Charter-Party that the charterer has the right to order the ship to a
port where she may touch the bottom in safety.
Negligence Clause - Clause in a Bill of Lading or Charter-Party which seeks to relieve the shipowner or carrier of liability for losses
caused by the negligence of his servants or agents.
New Jason Clause - Protective clause inserted into a Charter-Party or Bill of Lading which provides that the shipowner is entitled to
recover in general average even when the loss is caused by negligent navigation. The need for such a clause arises from the
decision of an American court that, while American law exempted a shipowner from liability for loss or damage to cargo resulting from
negligent navigation, this did not entitle the shipowner to recover in general average for such a loss.
NOE - Not Otherwise Enumerated - Category in a freight tariff of a shipping line or liner conference which covers commodities not
specifically described elsewhere in the tariff.
Nomination - Designation of a specific ship for a particular voyage by a shipowner or shipping line.
Non-Conference Line - See independent line.
Non-Negotiable Bill of Lading - Bill of Lading which is not a signed, original Bill of Lading and which is therefore not capable of
being used to transfer title in the goods described in it.
Non-Reversible Laytime - Term used in a voyage Charter-Party to signify that the time allowed to the charterer for loading is to be
treated separately from the time allowed for discharging for the purpose of calculating demurrage or dispatch.
NOR - Notice of Readiness - Provision in a voyage charter that the shipowner or master must advise the charterer when the ship
has arrived and is ready to load or discharge for laytime to start counting. The clause containing this provision often stipulates the
particular hours and days when this notice may be tendered and how soon afterwards laytime commences.
NOS - Not Otherwise Specified - See not otherwise enumerated.
Notice of Redelivery - Written notice given by the time charterer to the shipowner giving the date when the ship is to be returned to
the shipowner at the end of the period of the charter. Charter-parties often stipulate that several such notices be given at agreed
intervals as the date of redelivery approaches.
Notify Party - Party whose name and address appears in a Bill of Lading who is to be notified by the shipping company or its agent of
the arrival of the goods at the discharge port. The notify party is often an agent for the receiver of the goods who arranges for their
clearance and transport to the receiver's premises. There is normally a box on the Bill of Lading into which the details of the notify
party are inserted.
NT - Net Tonnage - The total of all enclosed spaces within a ship available for cargo expressed in tons each of which is equivalent to
one hundred cubic feet. This term was previously referred to as NRT.
Ocean Waybill - See liner waybill.
Off Hire - Said of a ship on time charter for which hire money has temporarily ceased to be paid by the charterer, for example
because of breakdown of the ship or her equipment.
Off Hire Survey - Inspection carried out at the time a ship is redelivered by a time charterer to a shipowner at the end of the period of
the charter. The inspection is carried out to determine whether the ship is in the same condition, wear and tear excepted. as on
delivery. The quantity of bunkers is ascertained for comparison with the amounts specified in the Charter-Party. By agreement, the
ship is inspected by one surveyor for each of the two parties. Which party pays for the survey and whether the time taken counts for
the purpose of calculating hire money are matters agreed in the Charter-Party.
OO - In Owner's Option - Term in a Charter-Party, which stipulates that the shipowner has a choice in specific circumstances. For
example, in a voyage charter, the owner may have the option of specifying the exact quantity of cargo to be loaded.
Open - Said of a ship that is available as from a specified date at a particular place to steam to another port. if necessary. to load her
next cargo. having discharged the last one.
Open Conference - Liner conference that does not require its member lines to vote on the admission of a new member.
Open Rate - Freight rate negotiated by a shipper or freight forwarder with a shipping line or liner conference for shipping in excess of
a minimum agreed quantity of cargo on any one ship. It is lower than the published tariff rate and generally applies to the shipments of
one commodity from one pod of loading to one port of discharging.
Orders - Set of instructions given by the shipowner or ship operator to the master of a ship concerning the next voyage. These
instructions include the names of the intended ports of loading, bunkering and discharging together with the names, addresses,
telephone numbers and cable addresses of the ship's agents at each port, details of the cargo, a schedule of bunkers needed for the
voyage is not known. A ship is said to be awaiting orders and the master may be instructed to anchor where he is or to steam in the
direction of the area where the shipowner expects to find a cargo.
Original Bill of Lading - Bill of Lading which bears the original signature of the master of a ship or his agent. It is exchanged for the
goods at the place of destination of the contract of carriage.
OSB - One Safe Berth - See safe berth.
OSP - One Safe Port - See safe port.
OS & D - Over, Short and Damage Report - See outturn report.
OT - Overtime.
Outsider - See independent line.
Outturn Report - Written statement by a stevedoring company in which the condition of cargo discharged from a ship is noted along
with any discrepancies in the quantity compared with the ship's manifest. Also referred to as an over, short and damage report.
Outturn Weight - Weight of cargo ascertained when it is discharged from a ship. Freight on bulk cargoes is sometimes payable on
the basis of this weight.
Overlap - The period of time during which a charterer retains a vessel beyond the stated period of the time charter.
Overage - Cargo discharged in excess of the quantity on the ship's manifest.
Overtonnaging - Situation where there are too many ships generally or in a particular trade, for the level of available cargoes.
Owners Agents - Ship's agent nominated by, and paid by: the shipowner in accordance with the Charter- Party.
Owners Broker - Shipbroker who acts on behalf of a shipowner in the negotiations leading to the chartering out of the owner's ship.
Owners Market - Strong market in favor of Ship Owner's.
Paramount Clause - Clause in a Bill of Lading or Charter-Party which stipulates that the contract of carriage is governed by the
Hague Rules or the Hague-Visby Rules or the enactment of these miles in the country having jurisdiction over the contract.
Part Cargo - Goods which do not represent the entire cargo for a particular ship but whose quantity is sufficient to be carried on the
Part Charter - The chartering of a ship to carry a quantity of goods, which represents only a part of the cargo.
Performance Claim - Claim made by the time charterer against a shipowner when the ship has been unable to achieve the speed
agreed in the Charter-Party or has consumed too much fuel or both.
Performance Clause - Clause in a time Charter-Party which stipulates that, should the ship be unable to achieve the agreed speed
or should she consume too much fuel, the charterer is entitled to recover from the shipowner the cost of time lost and extra fuel,
normally by means of a deduction from hire money.
PFT - Per Freight Ton - see freight ton.
PLTC - Port Liner Term Charges - Cargo handling charges levied on the shipper by the shipping line at the port of loading.
Point to Port Rate - Freight rate which includes all costs from inland place of the exporting country to the port of discharge in the
Pooling - Sharing of cargo or the profit or loss from freight by member lines of a liner conference pooling arrangements do not exist in
Port to Point Rate - Freight rate which includes all costs from the port of loading in the exporting country to an inland place in the
Post Fixture - After the contract for the charter of a ship has been agreed. Said of work carried out by a shipowner, charterer or
shipbroker, including payment of hire or freight, calculation of dispatch or demurrage and the resolution of any disputes.
Preamble - First few lines of a Charter-Party in which the panics to the contract and the ship are identified.
Private Form - Standard Charter-Party devised and used by a particular company. Oil companies when chartering tankers use the
majority of these charter-parties.
Pro Forma Charter-Party - Document containing all the terms and conditions of a contract between a shipowner and a charterer but
which is unsigned and therefore is not a contract itself.
Pro Forma Disbursements Account - Statement sent by a ship's agent at a port to the shipowner in advance of the ship's call at
the port. It consists of the expenses that are likely to be incurred, including port charges, pilotage, towage and the agent's
commission. This account is used to help the shipowner estimate the viability of a voyage and serves as a request by the agent for
sufficient funds to be made available prior to the ship's arrival.
Protecting Agent - Agent appointed by the owners or charterers to protect their interest and to supervise the work carried out by the
ship's agent when. under the Charter-Party. the vessel is consigned to another's agent. If the Charter-Party calls for owner's agents,
the charterers may appoint a protecting or supervisory agent to protect their interest at the port of loading and / or discharge. The
same applies to shipowners, time charterers and voyage charterers.
Protective Clauses - Clauses in a Charter-Party which provide contingencies for unforeseen situations, such as ice, strikes, general
average or collision. Also known as protecting clause.
Purposes - Time allowed in a voyage Charter-Party for loading and discharging combined, expressed as a number of days or hours.
Also referred to as all purposes.
Rate of Demurrage - Amount payable by a voyage charterer to a shipowner for each day used to loadand / or discharge cargo in
excess of the time allowed in the Charter-Party.
Rate of Discharging / Loading - Number of tons of cargo discharged /loaded each day from / into a ship. Such a provision is often
included in the terms of a voyage charter.
Rate of Freight - See freight rate.
Received for Shipment Bill of Lading - Bill of Lading evidencing that the goods have been received into the care of the carrier, but
not yet loaded on board. It also serves as evidence of the contract of carriage and is a document of title, although because the goods
have not necessarily been loaded on to the ship, this type of Bill of Lading is not always acceptable to banks as collateral security.
Receiver - Party who receives the cargo at the place of destination in the contract of carriage.
"Recommended" Charter - When there has been no proper groups of charterers with whom to negotiate a particular charter, for
instance. "Gencon" Charter it is issued as a "recommended" charter. The same is the case if the parties with which a charter has been
negotiated will not be able to bind their members to use the charter as a clean document. This is the position, for instance, for the
"Norgrain" Charter and the 'Nuvoy" Charter. Whereas BIMCO naturally wishes the printed text of a "recommended" charter to be
followed by charterers and shipowners. there were no compulsion in this respect.
Redly - Redelivery - Return of a ship by the time charter to the shipowner at the end of the period of the charter.
Redelivery Certificate - Document signed by or on behalf of the shipowner and the charterer, certifying the time, date and place of
redelivery of the ship, that is, the returning of the ship by the time charterer to the shipowner at the end of the period of charter. The
certificate also states the quantity of bunkers onboard at the time redelivery.
Release a Bill of Lading (to) - To provide the shipper with an original Bill of Lading, often in exchange for the freight.
Reversible Laytime - Term used in a voyage Charter-Party to signify that the time allowed for loading may at the charterers option,
be added to the time allowed for discharging for the purpose of calculating demurrage or dispatch.
RT - Revenue Ton - Unit of cargo on which a freight rate is based, generally one ton or one cubic meter whichever is greater. Also
called freight ton.
Round Voyage - Voyage involving two legs the second of which brings the ship back to the geographical area where the first leg
Running Days - Consecutive days of 24 hours including weekends and holidays.
Saleform - Memorandum of agreement giving details of the purchase of a ship, devised by the Norwegian Shipbroker's Association.
SB - Safe Berth - Term in a charter party which places the responsibility onto the cargo interests to order the chartered ship to a berth
which is physically safe for her while she is there for the purpose of loading or discharging.
SD - Single deck ship.
Sea Waybill - See liner waybill
Seaworthiness - Fitness of a ship for a particular voyage with a particular cargo. The main requirements for seaworthiness are that a
ship has sufficient crew, stores and fuel, the machinery and equipment are in good repair and that the ship is fit to receive an carry
Service Agreement or Service Contract - Agreement between a shipper and a liner conference in which the shipper undertakes to
ship some or all, as the case may be, of his cargo on conference line ships for a specific period of time in return for an agreed rate of
freight and level of service. Some contracts require the shipper to achieve a minimum quantity of cargo over the agreed period.
SHEX - Sundays and Holidays Excepted - Charter-Party term which provides that Sundays and public holidays do not count in the
calculation of laytime. See also even if used. and unless used.
SHINC - Sundays and Holidays Included - Charter-Party term, which provides that Sundays and public holidays count in the
calculation of laytime, whether or not used for loading or discharging, as the case may be.
Shipbroker - Person having one or several occupations: chartering agent or owner's broker, negotiating the terms for the charter of
a ship on behalf of a charterer or shipowner respectively, sale and purchase broker, negotiating on behalf of a buyer or seller of a
ship: ship's agent, attending to the requirements of a ship, her master and crew when in port on behalf of the shipowner, loading
broker, whose business is to attract cargoes to the ships of his principal.
Shipped Bill of Lading or Shipped on Board Bill of Lading - Bill of Lading issued when the goods have been loaded on board the
ship. This type of Bill of Lading, which must contain a reference to the goods having shipped on board, is often required by banks who
advance money using the Bill of Lading as collateral security and who wish to be satisfied that the goods are on board the ship.
Shipper - Person or company who enters into a contract with a liner conference, shipping line or shipowner for the carriage of goods.
Ship's Agent - Person who looks after the interests of a ship while she is in port. His duties include the arranging of pilotage, towage
and a berth for the ship, the signing of bills of lading and the collection of freight. The agent is paid a fee, agreed in advance with the
Short Form Bill of Lading - Bill of Lading which does not have printed on it the full terms and conditions of the contract of carriage
but instead contains a reference to the carrier's conditions, normally stating that a copy is available on request.
Short Shipment - Part of consignment which has not been shipped in a specific ship, normally because there was insufficient space
in the ship or because the goods arrived at the port of loading after the ship has completed loading or has sailed.
Sim Sub. - Similar Substitute - ship offered by a shipowner to a charterer as a replacement for the one originally chartered which is
similar in respect of the principal characteristics, which include deadweight, capacities and hold and hatch sizes.
Sister Ship - Ship with the same specification as another. This is sometimes offered to a charterer by a shipowner who has two or
more identical ships but is not certain at the time of negotiating the charter that will be in the most suitable geographical position to
perform the voyage.
SP - Safe Port - Term in a Charter-Party which places the responsibility on to the cargo interests to order the chartered ship to a pod
which is physically and politically safe for her to reach, remain and leave, taking into consideration the cargo to be loaded or
S & P - Sale and Purchase Broker - Person who negotiates the terms for the sale of a ship on behalf of the buyer or seller.
SSHEX - Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays Excepted - Charter-Party term which provides that Saturdays. Sundays and public
holidays do not count in the calculation of laytime. See also even if used, and unless used.
SSHINC - Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays Included - Charter-Party term which provides that Sundays and public holidays count
in the calculation of laytime. whether or not used for loading or discharging, as the case may be.
Statement of Facts - Statement, prepared by the ship's agent at the loading and discharging ports, which shows the date and times
of arrival of the ship and the commencement and completion of loading and discharging. It details the quantity of cargo loaded or
discharged each day, the hours worked and the hours stopped with the reasons for the stoppages, such as bad weather, a strike or
breakdown of equipment.
Stem - Availability of a cargo on the date or dates on which a ship is offering to load.
Strike Clause - Clause in a Bill of Lading or Charter-Party that sets out the options available to the parties to the contract of carriage
in the event that a strike prevents or interrupts the loading or discharging of the cargo. The wording of the clause and the options vary
according to the individual contract. In the case of a charter, the clause may contain a provision for the effect of a strike on laytime.
Sub-Charterer - Person or company who charters a ship for a party, who is not the owner but who, in turn, has chartered the ship.
Sub-Freight - Freight payable by the sub-charterer, normally to the charterer.
Sub. Details - Subject Details - Term qualifying an offer or counter-offer for the charter of a ship which demotes that only minor
details remain to be agreed. It is widely accepted that the conclusion of a contract is conditional on these details being agreed
although an American court has ruled that the acceptance of such offer or counter-offer is sufficient to create a contract, leaving the
details to be agreed subsequently.
Sub. Free - Subject Free - Term used in an offer made by a shipowner to signify that the acceptance of that offer will only result in a
contract if one has not been concluded in the meantime with a third party. Also referred to as subject open or subject unfixed.
Sub. Open - Subject Open - see subject free.
Sub. Unfixed - Subject Unfixed - See subject free.
Subject Stem - Subject to the availability of the cargo on the dates on which a ship is offering to load.
Sub-Let - The charter of a ship to one party by another party who is not the owner but who, in turn. has the charter of the ship. Also
referred to as a sub-charter.
Substitute - Replacement for a ship for a particular voyage.
Substitution - The replacement of a ship with another ship. A shipowner often has an option in a voyage to employ a ship other than
the one named in the Charter-Party since he may not know which of his ships will be capable of performing the voyage at the time the
contract is concluded, particularly if this is done well in advance of loading.
SWL - Safe Working Load - Maximum load which can safely be borne by a lifting or hauling appliance, such as crane or winch. The
safe working load is generally marked clearly on the equipment and must not be exceeded.
TA Round - Transatlantic round voyage.
Tariff - Schedule of charges. such as the freight tariff of a shipping line or conference, in which are published freight rates, generally
for a wide variety of commodities.
TBA - To be advised.
TBN - To Be Nominated - Said in respect of a voyage for which a specific ship has yet to be designated by the shipowner or shipping
Tender Notice of Readiness (to) - As master of a ship to present cargo interests or their agent with written notice that the ship has
arrived and is ready to load or discharge, as the case may be. some charter parties provide that this notice may be offered at certain
times only, for example during office hours.
TEU - Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit - Unit of measurement equivalent to one 20 foot shipping container. Thus a 40-foot container is
equal to two t.e. u.s. This measurement is used to quantify for example, the container capacity of a ship, the number of containers on
a particular voyage or over a period of time, or it may be the unit on which freight is payable.
Through Bill of Lading - Bill of Lading issued by a shipping line for a voyage requiring on-carriage, thus involving at least one
transshipment. According to the particular contract, the issuer of the Bill of Lading may be responsible for the goods throughout the
voyage or only for one leg, acting as agent for the on carriage. Often referred to simply as a through bill.
Time - Frequently used term to mean laytime.
Time Charter - The hiring of a ship from a shipowner for a period of time. Under this type of contract, the shipowner places his ship,
with crew and equipment, at the disposal of the charterer, for which the charterer pays hire money. Subject to any restrictions in the
contract, the charterer decides the type and quantity of cargo to be carried and the ports of loading and discharging. He is
responsible for supplying the ship with bunkers and for the payment of cargo handling operations, pod charges, pilotage, towage and
ship's agency. The technical operation and navigation of the ship remain the responsibility of the shipowner. A ship hired in this way is
said to be on time charter.
Time Charterer - A person or company who hires a ship for a period of time.
Time Charter-Party - A document containing the terms and conditions of a contract between a charterer and a shipowner for the hire
of a ship for a period of time.
Time Lost Waiting for Berth to Count - A Charter-Party expression which denotes that the laytime are to start from the time the
Notice of readiness is presented by the master to the charterer's agent, ever, though vessel is held up because no berth is available.
Time reversible - Overall calculations of laydays, in loading and discharging in a voyage Charter-Party. Time saved in loading can
be made up fro time lost, if any, in discharging or vice versa.
Time Sheet - Statement, drawn up by the ship's agent at the loading and discharging ports, which details the time worked in loading
or discharging the cargo together with the amount of laytime used. This latter figure, when compared with the time allowed in the
voyage Charter-Party, is used by the shipowner and charterer to calculate demurrage or dispatch, as the case may be.
Time to Begin on Arrival - A Charter-Party clause referring to the laytime in the strict sense that time is to count immediately on rival
at the port of loading or discharging irrespective whether a berth is available or not.
Ton Mile - Unit cargo ton/distance carried and covered. This is arrived at as follows. if two tons of merchandise are carried for 25
miles, then the "ton mile" will be 2 x 25 or 50 ton miles.
TPC - Tons per Centimeter - A quantity, for example of cargo or fuel, needed to immerse a ship one further centimeter. This quantity
varies not only ship by ship but also according to the quantity already on board.
TPD - Tons per Day - The quantity of cargo loaded or discharged each day. The time allowed by a shipowner to a charterer for
loading or discharging, known as laytime, is often expressed as a number of tons per day.
TPI - Tons per Inch - A quantity, for example of cargo or fuel, needed to immerse a ship one further inch. This quantity varies not only
ship by ship but also according to the quantity already on board.
Turn Round Time or Turnround or Turnaround Time - Time between a ship arriving in port and sailing.
Turn Time - Time during which a ship waits for a berth.
UBC - Universal bulk carrier.
UCE - Unforeseen circumstances excepted including MEBD (Main engine breakdown).
Unclean Bill of Lading - See dirty Bill of Lading.
UU - Unless Used - Charter-Party term which provides that a proportion normally all or half, of time used to load or discharge, as the
case may be, during excepted periods counts for the purpose of calculating total time used.
V/C - Voyage Charter - Contract of carriage in which the charterer pays for the use of a ship's cargo space for one, or sometimes
more than one, voyage. Under this type of charter, the shipowner pays all the operating costs of the ship while payment for port and
cargo handling charges are the subject of agreement between the parties. Freight is generally paid per unit of cargo, such as ton,
based on are agreed quantity, or as lump sum irrespective of the quantity loaded, the terms and conditions of the contract are set
down in a document known as Charter-Party. A ship chartered in this way is said to be on voyage charter.
Voyage Charter-Party - Document containing the terms and conditions of a contract between a charter and a shipowner for the use
of a ship's cargo space for one, or more than one voyage.
Voyage Estimate - Calculation of the profitability of a prospective voyage of a ship using estimated figures. In the case of a tramp
shipowner, the estimate is used to compare two or more possible voyage in order to determine which is the most profitable. Similarly, a
time charterer would compare two or more ships so as to charter the one that is least costly overall. The content of an estimate vanes
according to the type and terms of the charter and whether a shipowner or charterer is making the calculation. For an owner, the
principal costs are running cost of the ship (or hire money for a time charterer), bunker costs, port charges and canal dues together
with ship's agency fee and any cargo handling costs; the revenue is the daily hire, in the ease of a time charter, or the freight, less
any commission in the case of a voyage charter.
War Clause - Clause in a Bill of Lading or Charter-Party which sets out the course of action open to the master of a ship in the event
that the ship or her cargo or crew would be put at risk because of war should the voyage proceed. The clause varies according to
individual contracts but invariably the master would not be required to put his ship or crew at risk.
Waybill - See Liner Bill.
WEF - with effect from - This is said, for example, of the date when a new or amended surcharge of a shipping line takes effect.
WIBON - Whether in Berth or Not - Provision in a voyage charter that, once the ship has arrived at the port and tendered notice of
readiness, if required, laytime will start to count in accordance with the Charter- Party whether or not the ship has reached the berth.
WIPON - Whether in port or not
WIFPON - Whether in free Pratique or not
Withdraw a ship from the service of the charterer (to) - To remove control of a ship from the time charterer for the remaining
period of the charter. This action is taken by the shipowner in accordance with the charter when there has been serious breach of
contract, commonly when the charterer has failed to pay hire money on time.
WOG - Without Guarantees.
Workable Hatch - Term in a voyage charter which determines the number of days allowed for loading and / or discharging 'by
dividing the quantity of cargo in the largest hatch by the quantity per workable hatch per day as stipulated in the Charter-Party.
Difficulties of interpretation may arise in the calculation of laytime allowed when expressed in this way, particularly if the ship has
hatches capable of being worked by two gangs simultaneously. Also referred to as a working hatch.
Workable Crane - Term in a voyage charger which determines the number of days allowed for loading and / or discharging by the
number of cranes available for use by the charterers for operations. Generally expressed in tons per workable crane per day.
Working Day - When normal working is carried out in a port.
Working Day of 24 Consecutive Hours - Working day equates to one layday. The word consecutive was introduced after it was
ruled in court that a working day of 24 hours might be considered as more than one layday according to the length of normal working
time each day in a port.
Working Day of 24 Hours - Period of time which contains 24 normal working hours. If it is the custom of a port that eight hours
represents the normal working time per day. then a working day of 24 hours would be considered as three laydays.
WP - Weather Permitting - Term used in a voyage charter to signify that laytime does not count when weather conditions do not
allow loading or discharging operations to be carried out.
WTS - Working Time Saved - Charter-Party term used to define one method by which dispatch money is calculated, that is, by
deducting laytime used from laytime allowed. If, for example, a Charter-Party provides for six laydays for loading and the charterer
uses three days, he is entitled to three days' dispatch money. Also referred to as laytime saved.
WWD - Weather Working Day - Days on which work is normally carried out at a pod arid which counts as laytime unless loading or
discharging would have ceased because of bad weather.
WWR - When Where Ready - Frequently used provision in a time charter to determine the time and place of delivery / redelivery of a
ship by the charterer to the shipowner. This term is qualified in such a way as to make the time and place unambiguous. such as on
completion of discharge at a named port, abbreviated to w.w. r.c.d. followed by the name of the port.
WWRCD - When Where Ready on Completion of Discharge - see WWR - when where ready above.